Alex de Visscher Coronavirus Covid-19 Superspreader Worldometers

SARS-Cov-2 modelling situation report


As we start September, the UK situation regarding Covid-19 cases and deaths has changed somewhat.

Since the UK Government re-assessed the way deaths data is collected and reported, the reported daily deaths resulting from Covid-19 infections have (thankfully) reduced to a very low level, as we see from the UK Government Covid-19 reporting website.

Cases, however, as we see from the Government chart on the right, have started to rise again, although for a number of reasons the impact on deaths has been less than before. Note that this chart plots people testing Covid-19 positive (daily and total to date) against time.

I have integrated this real-world UK reported data with my model data to assess what is happening.

Reporting changes for UK deaths

As I reported in my August 17th post, reported daily deaths in England had previously set no time limit between an individual’s positive test for Covid-19, and when that person died.

The three other home countries in the UK had already been applying a 28-day limit for this interval. It was felt that, for England, this lack of a limit on the time interval resulted in over-reporting of deaths from Covid-19. Even someone who had died in a road accident, say, would have been reported as a Covid-19 death if they had ever tested positive, and had then recovered from Covid-19, no matter how long before their death the positive test had occurred.

This adjustment to the reporting was applied retroactively in England for all reported daily deaths, which resulted in a cumulative reduction of c. 5,000 in the UK reported deaths to up to August 12th.

Case numbers and antibody testing

You can see from the following Chart 10 that the plateau for modelled cases is of the order of 3 million. This startling view is supported by a recent Imperial College antibody study reported by U.K. Government here.

I have applied a factor of 8.3 to the reported cases in Chart 10 to bring them into line with the modelled cases, owing to significant under-reporting of the number of UK cases (based on positive Covid-19 tests).

Modelled Cases & Deaths development since Feb 1st - Uninfected, Cumulative Deaths, Uninfected & Seriously Sick
Modelled Cases & Deaths development since Feb 1st – Uninfected, Cumulative Deaths, Uninfected & Seriously Sick

The reported cases (defined, as above, by UK Government as people who have had a positive Covid-19 test) are just 337,168 as at September 1st, as we see from the following chart 9.

Modelled vs Reported Compartment development - Uninfected, Cumulative Cases & Deaths. Modelled Uninfected, All Infected & Seriously Sick
Modelled vs Reported Compartment development – Uninfected, Cumulative Cases & Deaths. Modelled Uninfected, All Infected & Seriously Sick

Testing, antibodies and case counting

The four pillars of Covid-19 testing include a single pillar of antibody testing, although it isn’t clear exactly which class of antibody is being tested. Not all antibody tests are the same.

It is also the case that despite more than 16 million Covid-19 tests having been processed in the UK to date (September 1st), the great majority of people have never been tested.

The under-reporting of cases (defining cases as those who have ever had Covid-19) was, in effect, confirmed by the major antibody testing programme, led by Imperial College London, involving over 100,000 people, finding that just under 6% of England’s population – an estimated 3.4 million people – had antibodies to Covid-19, and were therefore likely previously to have had the virus, prior to the end of June.

Even my modelled cases are likely to be a little under-estimated, and some update to my model’s calculation of cases will be made shortly.

Quite apart from the definition and counting of cases, according to a recent report by The Times, referencing this article from the BMJ, results obtained from some antibody testing might well be under-estimated too.

Stephen Burgess, from the Medical Research Council Biostatistics Unit at Cambridge University, and one of the authors, said. “It’s possible that somebody could have antibodies present in their saliva but not in their blood and it’s possible that somebody could have one class of antibody but not another class of antibodies.”

In particular, most antibody tests do not look for a type of response called IgA antibodies, which are made in mucus — in the mouth, eyes and nose. “In certain respiratory diseases, it’s well-documented that it’s possible to beat the infection with an IgA response,” he said.

When scientists have tested for IgA as well as the standard IgG antibodies, they have on occasions found hugely different results. In Luxembourg, IgA were found in 11 per cent of people compared with 2 per cent who tested positive using more conventional tests.

Dr Burgess said that calibrating tests using people who had been more severely ill may mean that a lot of asymptomatic infections are being missed.

The full report is here.

The Times concludes that it’s possible that herd immunity is closer than we think, with regional variations.

Reported Cases and Deaths

The following slide presentation shows only reported data for the UK. With Tom Sutton’s help, I have managed to link his previously developed Worldometers scraping code, which interrogates the daily updated Worldometers site for the UK, to retrieve reported cases and deaths data, to populate my MatLab/Octave model for Coronavirus (originally developed by Prof Alex de Visscher at Concordia University, Montreal).

This allows me to plot both modelled forecast data and reported data on the same charts, plotted from from the Octave forecasting model.

  • Reported UK Deaths vs.Cases since Feb 15th 2020, log chart
  • Reported UK Deaths vs.Cases since Feb 15th 2020, linear chart
  • Reported UK Deaths since Feb 15th 2020, linear chart
  • Reported UK Cases and Deaths since Feb 15th 2020, dual axis, log deaths, linear cases
  • Reported UK Cases and Deaths since Feb 15th 2020, linear dual-axis chart
  • Reported UK Cases and Deaths since Feb 15th 2020, log chart

Chart 3 shows reported deaths plotted against cases, on a log chart, and shows the log curve for deaths flattening as cumulative cases (on the linear x-axis) increase over time, indicating that the ratio of deaths/cases is reducing. This can also be seen very clearly on the linear scaled Chart 4.

Chart 5 shows cumulative deaths over time on linear axes, exhibiting the typical S-curve for infectious diseases; as of September 1st, daily deaths in the UK are in single figures.

Chart 6 shows deaths on a log y-axis (left) and cases on a linear y-axis (right).

Chart 7 plots both deaths and cases on linear y-axes (left and right respectively) for more direct comparison, and again we see that recently, since about Day 110 ( June 1st), cases have increased proportionately much faster than deaths. This date is fairly close to the time that the UK started to ease its lockdown restrictions.

Finally, Chart 8, plotting both deaths and cases on the same log y-axis, shows the relative progression over nearly 200 days since the onset of the pandemic.

These different views clearly show the recent changes in the way the epidemic is playing out in the UK population. Bear in mind that reported cases need something like a factor of 10 applied to bring them to a realistic figure.

Evidence for the under-estimation of Cases

The Imperial College antibody study referenced above is also in line with the estimate made by Prof. Alex de Visscher, author of my original model code, that the number of cases is typically under-reported by a factor of 12.5 – i.e. that only c. 8% of cases are detected and reported, an estimate assessed in the early days for the Italian outbreak, at a time when “test and trace” wasn’t in place anywhere.

A further sanity check on my forecasted case numbers, relative to the forecasted number of deaths, would be the observed mortality from Covid-19, where this can be assessed.

A study by a London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine team carried out an analysis of the Covid-19 outbreak in the closed community of the Diamond Princess cruise ship in March 2020.

Adjusting for delay from confirmation-to-death, this paper estimated case and infection fatality ratios (CFR, IFR) for COVID-19 on the Diamond Princess ship as 2.3% (0.75%-5.3%) and 1.2% (0.38-2.7%) respectively. See the World Health Organisation (WHO) description of CFR & IFR here.

In broad terms, my model forecast of c. 42,000 deaths and up to 3 million cases would be a ratio of about 1.4%, and so the IFR relationship between the deaths and cases numbers in my charts seems reasonable.

(NB since we know that the risk of death from Covid-19 is higher in older people, and the age profile of cruise ship passengers is probably higher than average, the Diamond Princess percentages are at the high end of the spectrum.)

Reasons for the reducing deaths/cases ratio

Reported deaths per case are reducing significantly, because:

a) we are more aware of taking care of older people in Care Homes (and certainly not knowingly sending Covid-19 positive old folks to them), sadly lacking in the early days of the pandemic in many countries;

b) relatively more young people are being infected as compared with older people because they are the ones working and going out more, and they have lower mortality than older people;

c) we have some better experience and palliative treatments to help some people recover (eg Dexamethasone as described at; and

d) daily cases are increasing, rather than reducing, as deaths are.

This is covered in a very good article by Rowland Manthorpe, technology correspondent, and Isla Glaister, data editor of Sky News, whose reports I have read before. The article makes very clear the changes in the age-profile of cases from early March to the end of July.

UK weekly confirmed cases by age, published by Sky September 2nd 2020
UK weekly confirmed cases by age, published by Sky September 2nd 2020

Another view of this is from The Times on September 5th, data sourced from Public Health England (PHE);

UK weekly confirmed cases by age, published by The Times September 5th 2020
UK weekly confirmed cases by age, published by The Times September 5th 2020

and, more specifically, here is how the proportion of cases has shifted between under 40s and over 50s from March until September.

Changing age profile of Covid-19 cases, published by The Times September 6th
Changing age profile of Covid-19 cases, published by The Times September 6th

Issues for modelling presented by local spikes

Modelling the epidemic for the UK is now really difficult, as most cases having an impact on the UK national statistics are nearly all caused by local outbreaks, or spikes – what I call multiple super-spreader events. Although that isn’t quite the right description, these are being caused by behaviour such as lack of social distancing, and maybe erratic mask-wearing on flights returning to the UK with pre- and even post-diagnostic cases on board.

The super-spreader events in the early days in Italy (and in the UK) were caused by people, unknowingly and asymptomatically infected, returning to their home countries from overseas and infecting others.

The increasingly frequent recent events we are seeing are caused, it seems to me, by people who ought, nowadays, to have more awareness of the risks, and know better, compared to those in the early days.

What would be needed to model such events is good local data for each one, and some kind of model for how, when and how often, statistically, these events might occur (aircraft, pubs, clubs, demonstrations, illegal raves and all the rest). Possibly even religious gatherings and other such cultural (including sporting) gatherings have a role.

So modelling this bottom-up is difficult – but feasible, hopefully. In any case, what is needed at the moment is a time-dependent way of handling the infection risks, in the context of these events, the way that lockdown easing points have been introduced to the model.

Worldometers/IHME forecasts and charts

I might say that modelling only by curve fitting, top-down, is pretty incomplete in my view. Phenomenological methods forecast the future based on the past with no ability to model or reflect changes in intervention methods, public behaviour and responses; and I see no capability in the methodology to take super-spreader events into account.

This might be difficult for bottom-up mechanistic modelling, but it’s impossible for broad, country-based curve-fitting, as no link can be made from input changes in government measures, population responses and individual behaviour, to their influence on outcomes.

I covered the comparative phenomenological and mechanistic methods in my previous posts on July 14th and July 18th.

In the charts that follow, we see that forecasts are made for three scenarios: current projections; mandates easing; and universal masks.

To do this, as IHME (Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington, USA) say at the IHME FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) page, Worldometers/IHME forecasts rely on both statistical and disease transmission models: “Our current model is not a disease transmission model. It is a hybrid model that combines both a statistical modeling approach and a disease transmission approach, leveraging the strengths of both types of models, and scaling the results of the disease transmission model to the results of the statistical model.

This enables them to calibrate outcomes based on three outbreak management scenarios.

Illustrating the point, I show the IHME forecast for the UK, followed by that for the USA . First the UK:

Worldometers forecast for the UK, with three scenarios and error bounds

It seems that IHME forecasts for the UK, linked to the Worldometers UK site, are based on a broader view of UK deaths, relating to those where Covid-19 is mentioned on the death certificate, as defined by the UK Office for National Statistics (ONS), but not necessarily cited as the cause of death.

This is even though the Worldometers current reporting charts themselves are consistent with UK Government reported data, which presents deaths in all settings (including hospitals, care homes and the community) but only when Covid-19 is cited as the cause of death.

These ONS and IHME numbers are higher than the UK Government (and Worldometers) statistic. The daily numbers I have been using, presented by the UK Government, continue to be based on the narrower definition – Covid-19 as the cause of death on the death certificate.

Nevertheless, my main point here isn’t about the absolute numbers, but about the forecasting scenarios. We can see that the IHME methodology allows for several forecasting scenarios – current projections based on the interventions currently in place; mandates easing; and universal mask-wearing.

The US IHME forecast is presented similarly:

Worldometers forecast for the USA, with three scenarios and error bounds

In the case of the USA, the numbers are far larger for a much bigger population, and at worst the numbers are staggering. The Covid-19 deaths, currently 187,770 on this chart, had already exceeded Michael Levitt’s well-publicised curve-fitting Twitter forecast made in mid-July, indicating that by August 25th the USA excess deaths will have reduced to a very low level, and that the USA experience of the pandemic would essentially be over, with 170,000 deaths. It seems he agrees that forecast, or at least the way he expressed it, was a mistake.

In the USA case, the numbers are far larger for a much bigger population, and at worst the numbers are staggering. The current 187,770 already exceeds Michael Levitt's well-known curve-fitting forecast made a month ago, indicating that by August 25th the USA excess deaths will have reduced to a very low level, and that the USA experience of the pandemic would essentially be over, with 170,000 deaths. It seems he agrees that forecast, or at least the way he expressed it, was a mistake.
Michael Levitt’s well-publicised curve-fitting Twitter forecast made in mid-July, indicating that by August 25th the USA excess deaths will have reduced to a very low level, and that the USA experience of the pandemic would essentially be over, with 170,000 deaths
Michael Levitt's statement that his estimate of 170,000 reported deaths made 11 July was 7K too low.
Michael Levitt’s statement that his estimate of 170,000 reported deaths made on 11th July was 7K too low.

See Michael’s new UnHerd interview with Freddie Sayers.

As for excess deaths, no measure is without its issues, and the problem there is that Covid-19 deaths will probably have replaced deaths from some other causes (people go out less, so there will be less road accident deaths, for example).

This means that excess deaths reducing to zero isn’t by any means a sufficient test that the SARS-Cov-2 pandemic is all over bar the shouting.

IHME can predict several scenarios, as for the UK, and at best they are predicting 288,381 deaths by the end of the year for the USA. At worst their number is over 600,000. I’m sure things wouldn’t be allowed to get to that.

But these kinds of scenarios for different potential interventions, in combinations, or when eased, just aren’t going to work with curve-fitting alone, where, given just 3 (or at best, 4) parameters to do a least-squares fit of a Cycloid, Gompertz or more general Richards / General Logistics curve to the reported data, any changes to Government interventions and/or public response (even nationally, let alone for local spikes) can’t be reflected. It’s a top-down view of reported data (however well-cleansed) not a bottom-up causation model with the ability to make variations to strategies for intervention.

Mechanistic modelling is hard to do, takes longer and is more expensive in computer time (especially when trying to cover many countries individually); that is where a broader helicopter top-down view from curve-fitting can help to get started. But curve-fitting is not an actionable model for deciding between intervention methods.

I covered these methods in my blog posts on July 14th and July 18th as I was sanity checking my own outlook on modelling methods as between mechanistic modelling (the broad type of the model I use) and phenomenological / statistical methods.

The Imperial College resources

As I have already reported in my blog post on July 18th, Imperial College (and others such as The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine) use a variety of model types and data sources (as do IHME) spanning both mechanistic and statistical methods (which include phenomenological techniques) for forecasts at different levels of detail and over different periods. These are described at the Imperial College’s Medical Research Council MRC Global Infectious Disease Analysis website, where this chart is presented, describing their different methods:

COVID-19 planning tools
Epidemiological models use a combination of mechanistic and statistical approaches.

and they go on to describe the key characteristics of the approaches:

Mechanistic model: Explicitly accounts for the underlying mechanisms of diseases transmission and attempt to identify the drivers of transmissibility. Rely on more assumptions about the disease dynamics.

Statistical model: Do not explicitly model the mechanism of transmission. Infer trends in either transmissibility or deaths from patterns in the data. Rely on fewer assumptions about the disease dynamics.

Mechanistic models can provide nuanced insights into severity and transmission but require specification of parameters – all of which have underlying uncertainty. Statistical models typically have fewer parameters. Uncertainty is therefore easier to propagate in these models. However, they cannot then inform questions about underlying mechanisms of spread and severity.

The forecasts they have made, as you can see, just as the IHME forecasts do, rely on several methodologies.

The table I have shown before from the pivotal Imperial College modelling team March 16th paper:

PC=school and university closure, CI=home isolation of cases, HQ=household quarantine, SD=large-scale general population social distancing, SDOL70=social distancing of those over 70 years for 4 months (a month more than other interventions)
PC=school and university closure, CI=home isolation of cases, HQ=household quarantine, SD=large-scale general population social distancing, SDOL70=social distancing of those over 70 years for 4 months (a month more than other interventions)

shows the capability to model a range of Non Pharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs) alone or in different combinations to arrive at forecasts based on such strategies. I covered the NPI variations in some detail in my August 14th blog post, and the mechanistic, statistical and phenomenological approaches in my July 14th blog post and July 18th post.


My UK model is tracking quite well after a small change in intervention effectiveness since March 23rd to reflect the retroactive August 12th Government changes in counting deaths, and a slight easing of lockdown on day 105 (May 17th). We see a lot happening here and in other countries, with travel restrictions and quarantining measures changing all the time. It is unlikely that countries will revert to large scale lockdowns.

This is partly because lockdown is seen by many to have done its job; partly because of its negative economic and social impacts; and partly because we know more about the effects of the individual interventions available. Mechanistic modelling methods help discriminate between the effects of the different interventions.

One of the key factors in the choice of interventions is on the basis of longer-term outcomes – the effect of actions taken today on future “herd” immunity of the population, which I covered in my July 31st blog post.

I mention again the influential March 16th Imperial College paper in this respect which, while published nearly 6 months ago, does give an insight into the complexity and capability of modelling methods and data sources and intervention discrimination available to Government advisers.

Modelling on an overall national basis will need some enhancement to cope with the large number of local “spikes” and other events that we have been seeing recently.

Concluding comments

There are reasons for concern – the possibility that current spikes in cases might lead to a major “wave” in the epidemic; that autumn isn’t too far away; and that influenza and other related diseases such as SARS-Cov-2 are more prevalent in the autumn/winter months.

The BBC have reported that the return of students to Universities in the UK is expected to lead to a high risk of increasing the rate of Covid-19 cases. We will see.

I leave it to the Sky News summary to express closing thoughts, and some optimism.

The fear among government scientists is that if the outbreak gets out of control among young people, it will eventually leak into the more vulnerable parts of the population. What might look like a divergence between cases and deaths is actually just a larger lag. To find the answer to that, the best places to look are France and Spain, where cases are rising fast, but deaths and hospitalisations are still low. But whatever happens, we should remember: this isn’t March all over again. We test so much more. We know so much more about treatment. And we all understand how to change our behaviour. That is cause for optimism as we face the next six months.

Adam Kucharski Alex de Visscher Coronavirus Covid-19 David Spiegelhalter Superspreader Worldometers

Model updates for UK lockdown easing points


As I reported in my previous post on 31st July, the model I use, originally authored by Prof. Alex de Visscher at Concordia University in Montreal, and described here, required an update to handle several phases of lockdown easing, and I’m glad to say that is now done.

Alex has been kind enough to send me an updated model code, adopting a method I had been considering myself, introducing an array of dates and intervention effectiveness parameters.

I have been able to add the recent UK Government relaxation dates, and the estimated effectiveness of each into the new model code. I ran some sensitivities which are also reported.

Updated interventions effectiveness and dates

Now that the model can reflect the timing and impact of various interventions and relaxations, I can use the epidemic history to date to calibrate the model against both the initial lockdown on March 23rd, and the relaxations we have seen so far.

Both the UK population (informally) and the Government (formally) are making adjustments to their actions in the light of the threats, actual and perceived, and so the intervention effects will vary.

Model adjustments

At present I am experimenting with different effectiveness percentages relating to four principal lockdown relaxation dates, as described at the Institute for Government website.

In the model, the variable k11 is the starting % infection rate per day per person for SARS-Cov-2, at 0.39, which corresponds to 1 infection every 1/0.39 days ~= 2.5 days per infection.

Successive resetting of the interv_success % model variable allows the lockdown, and its successive easings to be defined in the model. 83.5% (on March 23rd for the initial lockdown) corresponds to k11 x 16.5% as the new infection rate under the initial lockdown, for example.

In the table below, I have also added alternative lockdown easing adjustments in red to show, by comparison, the effect of the forecast, and hence how difficult it will be for a while to assess the impact of the lockdown easings, volatile and variable as they seem to be.

DateDay Steps and example measuresChanges to % effectiveness
23rd March52Lockdown starts+83.5%
13th May105Step 1 – Partial return to work
Those who can work from home should do so, but those who cannot should return to work with social distancing guidance in place. Some sports facilities open.
-1% = 82.5%

-4% = 79.5%
1st June122Step 2 – Some Reception, Year 1 and Year 6 returned to school. People can leave the house for any reason (not overnight). Outdoor markets and car showrooms opened.-5% = 77.5%

-8% = 71.5%
15th June136Step 2 additional – Secondary schools partially reopened for years 10 and 12. All other retail are permitted to re-open with social distancing measures in place.-10% = 67.5%

+10% = 81.5%
4th July155Step 3 – Food service providers, pubs and some leisure facilities are permitted to open, as long as they are able to enact social distancing.+20% = 87.5%

-6% = 75.5%
1st August186Step 3 additional – Shielding for 2m vulnerable people in the UK ceases0% = 87.5%
Dates, examples of measures, and % lockdown effectiveness changes on k11

After the first of these interventions, the 83.5% effectiveness for the original March 23rd lockdown, my model presented a good forecast up until lockdown easing began to happen (both informally and also though Government measures) on May 13th, when Step 1 started, as shown above and in more detail at the Institute for Government website.

Within each easing step, there were several intervention relaxations across different areas of people’s working and personal lives, and I have shown two of the Step 2 components on June 1st and June 15th above.

I applied a further easing % for June 15th (when more Step 2 adjustments were made), and, following Step 3 on July 4th, and the end (for the time being) of shielding for 2m vulnerable people on August 1st, I am expecting another change in mid-August.

I have managed to match the reported data so far with the settings above, noting that even though the July 4th Step 3 was a relaxation, the model matches reported data better when the overall lockdown effectiveness at that time is increased. I expect to adjust this soon to a more realistic assessment of what we are seeing across the UK.

With the % settings in red, the outlook is a little different, and I will show the charts for these a little later in the post

The settings have to reflect not only the various Step relaxation measures themselves, but also Government guidelines, the cumulative changes in public behaviour, and the virus response at any given time.

For example, the wearing of face coverings has become much more common, as mandated in some circumstances but done voluntarily elsewhere by many.

Comparative model charts

The following charts show the resulting changes for the initial easing settings. The first two show the new period of calibration I have used from early March to the present day, August 4th.

On chart 4, on the left, you can see the “uptick” beginning to start, and the model line isn’t far from the 7-day trend line of reported numbers at present (although as of early August possibly falling behind the reported trend a little).

On the linear axis chart 13, on the right, the reported and model curves are far closer than in the version in my most recent post on July 31st, when I showed the effects of lockdown easing on the previous forecasts, and I highlighted the difficulty of updating without a way of parametrising the lockdown easing steps (at that time).

Using the new model capabilities, I have now been able to calibrate the model to the present day, both achieving the good match I already had from March 23rd lockdown to mid-May, and then separately to adjust and calibrate the model behaviour since mid-May to the present day, by adjusting the lockdown effectiveness at May 15th, June 1st, June 15th and July 4th, as described earlier.

The orange dots (the daily deaths) on chart 4 tend to cluster in groups of 4 or 5 per week above the trend line (and also the model line), and 3 or 2 per week below. This is because of the poor accuracy of some reporting at weekends (consistently under-reporting at weekends and recovering by over-reporting early the following week).

The red 7-day trend line on chart 4 reflects the weekly average position.

Looking a little further ahead, to September 30th, this model, with the initial easing settings, predicts the following behaviour, prior to any further lockdown easing adjustments, expected in mid-August.

Chart 12 for the comparison of cumulative & daily reported & modelled deaths, on the basis of 83.5% effectiveness, modified in 4 steps by -1%, -5% -10% and +2% successively
Chart 12 for the comparison of cumulative & daily reported & modelled deaths

Finally, for comparison, the Worldometers UK site has a link to its own forecast site, which has several forecasts depending on assumptions made about mask-wearing, and/or continued mandated lockdown measures, with confidence limits. I have screenshot the forecast on October 1st, where it shows 48,268 deaths assuming current mandates continuing, and mask-wearing.

My own forecast shows 47,201 cumulative deaths at that date.

Worldometers forecasts on the basis of mask wearing vs. no mandated measures, with confidence limits
Worldometers forecasts on the basis of mask wearing vs. no mandated measures, with confidence limits

Alternative % settings in red

I now present a slideshow of the corresponding charts with the red % easing settings. The results here are for the same initial lockdown effectiveness, 83.5%, but with successive easings at -4%, -8%, +10% and -6%, where negative is relaxation, and positive is an increase in intervention effectiveness.

  • Chart 12 for the comparison of cumulative & daily reported & modelled deaths to 26th April 2021, on the basis of 83.5% effectiveness, modified in 4 steps by -4%, -8% +10% and -6%% successively
  • Chart 12 for the comparison of cumulative & daily reported & modelled deaths to 30th Sep 2020, , on the basis of 83.5% effectiveness, modified in 4 steps by -4%, -8% +10% and -6%% successively
  • Chart 4 for the comparison of cumulative & daily reported & modelled deaths, plus reported trend line, on the basis of 83.5% effectiveness
  • Model forecast for the UK deaths as at August 8th, compared with reported for 83.5% lockdown effectiveness
  • Model forecast (linear axes) for the UK deaths as at August 8th, compared with reported for 83.5% lockdown effectiveness, modified in 4 steps by -4%, -8% +10% and -6%% successively

The model forecast here for September 30th is for 49, 549 deaths, and the outlook for the longer term, April 2020, is for 52,544.

Thus the next crucial few months, as the UK adjusts its methods for interventions to be more local and immediate, will be vital in its impact on outcomes. The modelling of how this will work is far more difficult, therefore, with fine-grained data required on virus characteristics, population movement, the comparative effect of different intervention measures, and individual responses and behaviour.

Hotspots and local lockdowns

At present, because the UK reported case number trend has flattened out and isn’t decreasing as fast, and because of some local hotspots of Covid-19 cases, the UK Government has been forced to take some local measures, for example in Leicester a month ago, and more recently in Manchester; the scope and scale of any lockdown adjustments is, therefore, a moveable target.

I would expect this to be the pattern for the future, rather than national lockdowns. The work of Adam Kucharski, reported at the Wellcome Open Research website, highlighting the “k-number”, representing the variation, or dispersion in R, the reproduction number, as he says in his Twitter thread, will be an important area to understand.

The k-number might well be more indicative, at this local hotspot stage of the crisis, than just the R reproduction number alone; it has a relationship to the “superspreader” phenomenon discussed for SARS in this 2005 paper, that was also noticed very early on for SARS-Cov-2 in the 2020 pandemic, both in Italy and also in the UK. I will look at that in more detail in another posting.

Superspreading relates to individuals who are infected (probably asymptomatically or pre-symptomatically) who infect others in a closed social space (eg in a ski resort chalet as reported by the BBC on February 8th) without realising it.

The hotspots we are now seeing in many places might well be related to this type of dispersion. The modelling for this would be a further complication, potentially requiring a more detailed spatial model, which I briefly discussed in my blog post on modelling methods on July 14th.

Superspreading might also need to be understood in relation to the opening of schools, in August and September (across the four UK home countries). It might have been a factor in the Israel experience of return to schools, as covered by the Irish Times on August 4th.

The excess deaths measure

There has been quite a debate on excess deaths (often a seasonal comparison of age-related deaths statistics compared with the previous 5 years) as a measure of the overall position at any time. As I said in a previous post on June 2nd, this measure does mitigate any arguments as to what is a Covid-19 fatality, and what isn’t.

The excess deaths measure, however, has its own issues with regard to the epidemic’s indirect influence on the death rates from other causes, both upwards and downwards.

Since there is less travel (on the roads, for example, with fewer accidents), and many people are taking more care in other ways in their daily lives, deaths from some other causes might tend to reduce.

On the other hand, people are feeling other pressures on their daily lives, affecting their mood and health (for example the weight gain issues reported by the COVID Symptom Study), and some are not seeking medical help as readily as they might have done in other circumstances. Both factors tend to increase illness and potentially death rates.

Even as excess deaths reduce, then, it may well be that Covid-19 deaths increase as others reduce. Possibly a crossover with seasonal influenza deaths, later on, might be masked by the overall excess deaths measure.

As I also mentioned in my post on July 6th, deaths in later years from other causes might increase because of this lack of timely diagnosis and treatment for other “dread” diseases, as, for example, for cancer, as stated by

So no measure of the epidemic’s effects is without its issues. Prof. Sir David Spiegelhalter covered this aspect in a newspaper article this week.


The statistical interpretation and modelling of data related to the pandemic is a matter of much debate. Some commentators and modellers are proponents of quite different methods of data recording, analysis and forecasting, and I covered phenomenological methods compared with mechanistic (SIR) modelling in previous posts on July 14th and July 18th.

The current reduced rate of decline in cases and deaths in some countries and regions, with concomitant local outbreaks being handled by local intervention measures, including, in effect, local lockdowns, has complicated the predictions of some who think (and have predicted) that the SARS-Cov-2 crisis will soon be over (some possibly for political reasons, some of them scientists).

Even when excess deaths reduce to zero, this doesn’t mean that Covid-19 is over, because, as I mentioned above, illness and deaths from other causes might have reduced, with Covid-19 filling the gap.

There are also concerns that recovery from Covid-19 as a death threat can be followed by longer-lasting illness and symptoms, and some studies (for example this NHLBI one) are gathering evidence, such as that covered by this report in the Thailand Medical News.

This Discharge advice from the UK NHS makes continuing care requirements for discharged Covid-19 patients in the UK very clear.

It is by no means certain, either, that recovery from Covid-19 confers immunity to SARS-Cov-2, and, if it does, for how long.

Concluding comments

I remain of the view that in the absence of a vaccine, or a very effective pharmaceutical treatment therapy, we will be living with SARS-Cov-2 for a long time, and that we do have to continue to be cautious, even (or, rather, especially) as the UK Government (and many others) move to easing national lockdown, at the same time as being forced to enhance some local intervention measures.

The virus remains with us, and Government interventions are changing very fast. Face coverings, post-travel quarantining, office/home working and social distancing decisions, guidance and responses are all moving quite quickly, not necessarily just nationally, but regionally and locally too.

I will continue to sharpen the focus of my own model; I suspect that there will be many revisions and that any forecasts are now being made (including by me) against a moving target in a changing context.

Any forecast, in any country, that it will be all over bar the shouting this summer is at best a hostage to fortune, and, at worst, irresponsible. My own model still requires tuning; in any case, however, I would not be axiomatic about its outputs.

This is an opinion informed by my studies of others’ work, my own modelling, and considerations made while writing my 30 posts on this topic since late March.

Coronavirus Covid-19 Office for National Statistics ONS PHE Public Health England Worldometers

The effect of lockdown easing in the UK


As reported in my previous post, there has been a gradual reduction in the rate of decline of cases and deaths in the UK relative to my model forecasts. This decline had already been noted, as I reported in my July 6th blog article, by The Office for National Statistics and their research partners, the University of Oxford, and reported on the ONS page here.

I had adjusted the original lockdown effectiveness in my model (from 23rd March) to reflect this emerging change, but as the model had been predicting correct behaviour up until mid-late May, I will present here the original model forecasts, compared with the current reported deaths trend, which highlights the changes we have experienced for the last couple of months.

Forecast comparisons

The ONS chart which highlighted this slowing down of the decline, and even a slight increase, is here:

Figure 6: The latest exploratory modelling shows incidence appears to have decreased between mid-May and early June
Figure 6: The latest exploratory modelling shows incidence appears to have decreased between mid-May and early June

Public Health England had also reported on this tendency for deaths on 6th July:

The death rate trend can be seen in the daily and 7-day average trend charts, with data from Public Health England
The death rate trend can be seen in the daily and 7-day average trend charts

The Worldometers forecast for the UK has been refined recently, to take account of changes in mandated lockdown measures, such as possible mask wearing, and presents several forecasts on the same chart depending on what take-up would be going forward.

Worldometers forecast for the UK as at July 31st 2020
Worldometers forecast for the UK as at July 31st 2020

We see that, at worst, the Worldometers forecast could be for up to 60,000 deaths by November 1st, although, according to their modelling, if masks are “universal” then this is reduced to under 50,000.

Comparison of my forecast with reported data

My two charts that reveal most about the movement in the rate of decline of the UK death rate are here…

On the left, the red trend line for reported daily deaths shows they are not falling as fast as they were in about mid-May, when I was forecasting a long term plateau for deaths at about 44,400, assuming that lockdown effectiveness would remain at 83.5%, i.e. that the virus transmission rate was reduced to 16.5% of what it would be if there were no reductions in social distancing, self isolation or any of the other measures the UK had been taking.

The right hand chart shows the divergence between the reported deaths (in orange) and my forecast (in blue), beginning around mid to late May, up to the end of July.

The forecast, made back in March/April, was tracking the reported situation quite well (if very slightly pessimistically), but around mid-late May we see the divergence begin, and now as I write this, the number of deaths cumulatively is about 2000 more than I was forecasting back in April.

Lockdown relaxations

This period of reduction in the rate of decline of cases, and subsequently deaths, roughly coincided with the start of the UK Govenment’s relaxation of some lockdown measures; we can see the relaxation schedule in detail at the Institute for Government website.

As examples of the successive stages of lockdown relaxation, in Step 1, on May 13th, restrictions were relaxed on outdoor sport facilities, including tennis and basketball courts, golf courses and bowling greens.

In Step 2, from June 1st, outdoor markets and car showrooms opened, and people could leave the house for any reason. They were not permitted to stay overnight away from their primary residence without a ‘reasonable excuse’.

In Step 3, from 4th July, two households could meet indoors or outdoors and stay overnight away from their home, but had to maintain social distancing unless they are part of the same support bubble. By law, gatherings of up to 30 people were permitted indoors and outdoors.

These steps and other detailed measures continued (with some timing variations and detailed changes in the devolved UK administrations), and I would guess that they were anticipated and accompanied by a degree of informal public relaxation, as we saw from crowded beaches and other examples reported in the press.

Model consequences

I did make a re-forecast, reported on July 6th in my blog article, using 83% lockdown effectiveness (from March 23rd).

Two issues remained, however, while bringing the current figures for July more into line.

One was that, as I only have one place in the model that I change the lockdown effectiveness, I had to change it from March 23rd (UK lockdown date), and that made the intervening period for the forecast diverge until it converged again recently and currently.

That can be seen in the right hand chart below, where the blue model curve is well above the orange reported data curve from early May until mid-July.

The long-term plateau in deaths for this model forecast is 46,400; this is somewhat lower than the model would show if I were to reduce the % lockdown effectiveness further, to reflect what is currently happening; but in order to achieve that, the history during May and June would show an even larger gap.

The second issue is that the rate of increase in reported deaths, as we can also see (the orange curve) on the right-hand chart, at July 30th, is clearly greater than the model’s rate (the blue curve), and so I foresee that reported numbers will begin to overshoot the model again.

In the chart on the left, we see the same red trend line for the daily reported deaths, flattening to become nearly horizontal at today’s date, July 31st, reflecting that the daily reported deaths (the orange dots) are becoming more clustered above the grey line of dots, representing modelled daily deaths.

As far as the model is concerned, all this will need to be dealt with by changing the lockdown effectiveness to a time-dependent variable in the model differential equations representing the behaviour of the virus, and the population’s response to it.

This would allow changes in public behaviour, and in public policy, to be reflected by a changed lockdown effectiveness % from time to time, rather than having retrospectively to apply the same (reduced) effectiveness % since the start of lockdown.

Then the forecast could reflect current reporting, while also maintaining the close fit between March 23rd and when mitigation interventions began to ease.

Lockdown, intervention effectiveness and herd immunity

In the interest of balance, in case it might be thought that I am a fan of lockdown(!), I should say that higher % intervention effectiveness does not necessarily lead to a better longer term outlook. It is a more nuanced matter than that.

In my June 28th blog article, I covered exactly this topic as part of my regular Coronavirus update. I referred to the pivotal March 16th Imperial College paper on Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs), which included this (usefully colour-coded) table, where green is better and red is worse,

PC=school and university closure, CI=home isolation of cases, HQ=household quarantine, SD=large-scale general population social distancing, SDOL70=social distancing of those over 70 years for 4 months (a month more than other interventions)
PC=school and university closure, CI=home isolation of cases, HQ=household quarantine, SD=large-scale general population social distancing, SDOL70=social distancing of those over 70 years for 4 months (a month more than other interventions)

which provoked me to re-confirm with the authors (and as covered in the paper) the reasons for the triple combination of CI_HQ_SD being worse than either of the double combinations of measures CI_HQ or CI_SD in terms of peak ICU bed demand.

The answer (my summary) was that lockdown can be too effective, given that it is a temporary state of affairs. When lockdown is partially eased or removed, the population can be left with less herd immunity (given that there is any herd immunity to be conferred by SARS-Cov-2 for any reasonable length of time, if at all) if the intervention effectiveness is too high.

Thus a lower level of lockdown effectiveness, below 100%, can be more effective in the long term.

I’m not seeking to speak to the ethics of sustaining more infections (and presumably deaths) in the short term in the interest of longer term benefits. Here, I am simply looking at the outputs from any postulated inputs to the modelled epidemic process.

I was as surprised as anyone when, in a UK Government briefing, in early March, before the UK lockdown on March 23rd, the Chief Scientific Adviser (CSA, Sir Patrick Vallance), supported by the Chief Medical Officer (CMO, Prof. Chris Whitty) talked about “herd immunity” for the first time, at 60% levels (stating that 80% needing to be infected to achieve it was “loose talk”). I mentioned this in my May 29th blog post.

The UK Government focus later in March (following the March 16th Imperial College paper) quickly turned to mitigating the effect of Covid-19 infections, as this chart sourced from that paper indicates, prior to the UK lockdown on March 23rd.

Projected effectiveness of Covid-19 mitigation strategies, in relation to the utilisation of critical care (ICU) bedsProjected effectiveness of Covid-19 mitigation strategies, in relation to the utilisation of critical care (ICU) beds
Projected effectiveness of Covid-19 mitigation strategies, in relation to the utilisation of critical care (ICU) beds

This is the imagery behind the “flattening the curve” phrase used to describe this phase of the UK (and others’) strategy.

Finally, that Imperial College March 16th paper presents this chart for a potentially cyclical outcome, until a Covid-19 vaccine or a significantly effective pharmaceutical treatment therapy arrives.

The potentially cyclical caseload from Covid-19, with interventions and relaxations applied as ICU bed demand changes
The potentially cyclical caseload from Covid-19, with interventions and relaxations applied as ICU bed demand changes

In this new phase of living with Covid-19, this is why I want to upgrade my model to allow periodic intervention effectiveness changes.


The sources I have referenced above support the conclusion in my model that there has been a reduction in the rate of decline of deaths (preceded by a reduction in the rate of decline in cases).

To make my model relevant to the new situation going forward, when lockdowns change, not only in scope and degree, but also in their targeting of localities or regions where there is perceived growth in infection rates, I will need to upgrade my model for variable lockdown effectiveness.

I wouldn’t say that the reduction of the rate of decline of cases and deaths is evidence of a “second wave”, but is rather the response of a very infective agent, which is still with us, to infect more people who are increasingly “available” to it, owing to easing of some of the lockdown measures we have been using (both informally by the public and formally by Government).

To me, it is evidence that until we have a vaccine, we will have to live with this virus among us, and take reasonable precautions within whatever envelope of freedoms the Government allow us.

We are all in each others’ hands in that respect.

Coronavirus Covid-19 Worldometers

Coronavirus modelling update


In my previous post on June 28th, I covered the USA vs. Europe Coronavirus pandemic situations; herd immunity, and the effects of various interventions on it, particularly as envisioned by the Imperial College Covid-19 response team; and the current forecasts for cases and deaths in the UK.

I have now updated the forecasts, as it was apparent that during the month of June, there had been a slight increase in the forecast for UK deaths. Worldometers’ forecast had increased, and also the reported UK numbers were now edging above the forecast in my own model, which had been tracking well as a forecast (if very slightly pessimistically) until the beginning of June.

This might be owing both to informal public relaxation of lockdown behaviour, and also to formal UK Government relaxations in some intervention measures since the end of May.


I have now reforecast my model with a slightly lower intervention effectiveness (83% instead of 83.5% since lockdown on 23rd March), and, while still slightly below reported numbers, it is nearly on track (although with the reporting inaccuracy each weekend, it’s not practical to try to track every change).

My long term outlook for deaths is now for 46,421 instead of 44,397, still below the Worldometers number (which has increased to 47,924 from 43,962).

Here are the comparative charts – first, the reported deaths (the orange curve) vs. modelled deaths (the blue curve), linear axes, as of July 6th.

Comparing this pair of charts, we see that the .5% reduction in lockdown intervention effectiveness (from March 23rd) brings the forecast, the blue curve on the left chart, above the reported orange curve. On the right, the forecast, which had been tracking the reported numbers for a month or more, had started to lag the reported numbers since the beginning of June.

I present below both cumulative and daily numbers of deaths, reported vs. forecast, with log y-axis. The scatter in the daily reported numbers (orange dots) is because of inconsistencies in reporting at weekends, recovered during each following week.

In this second pair of charts, we can just see that the rate of decline in daily deaths, going forward, is slightly reduced in the 83% chart on the left, compared with the 83.5% on the right.

This means that the projected plateau in modelled deaths, as stated above, is at 46,421 instead of 44,397 in my modelled data from which these charts are drawn.

It also shows that the forecast reduction to single digit (<10) deaths per day is pushed out from 13th August to 20th August, and the forecast rate of fewer than one death per day is delayed from 21st September to 30th September.

ONS & PHE work on trends, and concluding comments

Since the beginning of lockdown relaxations, there has been sharpened scrutiny of the case and death numbers. This monitoring continues with the latest announcements by the UK Government, taking effect from early July (with any accompanying responses to follow from the three UK devolved administrations).

The Office for National Statistics has been monitoring cases and deaths rates, of course, and the flattening of the infections and deaths reductions has been reported in the press recently.

July 3rd Times reporting ONS regarding trends in Covid-19 incidence rates and deaths

As the article says, any movement would firstly be in the daily number of cases, with any potential change in the deaths rate following a couple of weeks after (owing to the Covid-19 disease duration).

Source data for the reported infection rate is on the following ONS chart (Figure 6 on their page), where the latest exploratory modelling, by ONS research partners at the University of Oxford, shows the incidence rate appears to have decreased between mid-May and early June, but has since levelled off.

Figure 6: The latest exploratory modelling shows incidence appears to have decreased between mid-May and early June
Estimated numbers of new infections of the coronavirus (COVID-19), England, based on tests conducted daily since 11 May 2020

The death rate trend can be seen in the daily and 7-day average trend charts, with data from Public Health England.

The ONS is also tracking Excess deaths, and it seems that the Excess deaths in 2020 in England & Wales have reduced to below the five-year average for the second consecutive week.

The figures can be seen in the spreadsheet here, downloaded from the ONS page. The following chart appears there as Figure 1, also showing that the number of deaths involving Covid-19 decreased for the 10th consecutive week.

Number of deaths registered by week, England & Wales, Dec 2019 to 26th June 2020
Number of deaths registered by week, England & Wales, Dec 2019 to 26th June 2020

There are warnings, however, also reported by The Times, that there may be increased mortality from other diseases (such as cancer) into 2021 because worries about the pandemic haves led to changes in patterns of use of the NHS, including GPs, with fewer people risking trips to hospital for diagnosis and/or treatment. The report referred to below from highlights this

I will make any adjustments to the rate of change as we go forward, but thankfully daily numbers are just reducing at the moment in the UK, and I hope that this continues.